Indian Geography River System
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Solved Papers | General Studies
Written by MYOD on Wednesday, 01 June 2011 00:00   
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  • Indian Rivers can be divided into two main groups:

A. The Himalayan Rivers
B. The Peninsular Rivers

  • Further, Indian River System can be divided into four categories:

A. The Himalayan River System
B. The Peninsular River System
C. The Coastal River System
D. Inland River System

 

A. The Himalayan Rivers

  • Perennial in nature, they are fed by melting glaciers.
  • Assume alarming proportions during the monsoon.
  • Swollen with rainwater, cause heavy flood.

 

 

 

Include three major river systems:

The Indus River System

  • Originates near Mansarovar lake in Tibet.
  • Length is about 2880 km from the source to the point near Karachi where it falls into the Arabian Sea.
  • Length in India is 709 km.
  • Follows a north-wester ly course through Tibet.
  • Enters Indian territory in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Runs between the Ladakh Range and the Zanskar Range.
  • Major tributaries: Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.
  • Jhelum (725 km) rises from Verinag (South Eastern Kashmir), Chenab (1800 km) from Bara Lacha Pass (near Lahaul-Spiti, Himachal Pradesh), Ravi (720 km) from a point near Rohtang Pass (Himachal Pradesh), Beas (470 km) from a place near Rohtang Pass (Himachal Pradesh) and Sutlej (1050 km) from Rakas Lake (near Mansarovar, Tibet).
  • Major tributaries in Jammu and Kashmir: Drass, Gartang, Zaskar, Shyok, Shigar, Gilgit, Nubra and Hunza.

Brahmaputra River System

  • Originates in Chemayungdung Glacier near Mansarovar lake in Tibet.
  • Known as Tsangpo in Tibet.
  • Slightly longer than the Indus, but most of its course lies outside India.
  • Flows eastward, parallel to the Himalayas.
  • Enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and known as Dihang.
  • Flows through Arunachal Pradesh and Assam.
  • Main tributaries: Subansiri, Kameng, Dhansiri, Manas, Teesta.
  • Enters Bangladesh under the name of Jamuna.
  • Meets Ganga in Bangladesh and combined stream known as Padma.
  • Biggest river island of the world 'Majuli' (Assam) is on the Brahmaputra.

Ganga (Ganges) River System

  • Rises from the Gangotri Glacier in the Garhwal Himalayas, length is 2525 km.
  • Know as Bhagirathi in the beginning.
  • Mandakini and Alaknanda – join Bhagirathi at Dev Prayag, and is known as the Ganga after that.
  • The Gangetic basin is the largest river system in India, draining almost a quarter of the country.
  • Main tributaries: Yamuna, Ram Ganga, Gomti, Ghaghara, Son, Damodar and Sapt Kosi.
  • The Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri glacier at the Banderpoonch peak in Uttarakhand.
  • It flows 1375 km from here to its confluence with the River Ganga at Allahabad.
  • Main tributaries of Yamuna: Hindon, Chambal, Sind, Betwa and Ken.
  • Kosi is known as 'Sorrow of Bihar' and Damodar is known as 'Sorrow of Bengal'.
  • Hoogly is the distributary of Ganga.
  • Known as Padma in Bangladesh.
  • Meets Brahmaputra in Bangladesh, retains the name Padma and enters the Bay of Bengal.
  • Padma forms the largest delta 'Sunderbans' in the world.

B. The Peninsular Rivers

  • Can be divided into two groups:
  • A. East flowing rivers (which form delta)- Cauvery, Krishna, Godavari, Mahanadi, Swarnarekha and Brahmani.
  • B. West flowing rivers- Narmada, Tapti, Sabarmati, Luni, Sharavati and Mahi
  • Mainly rain fed.
  • The Godavari basin is the largest in the peninsula.
  • Narmada and Tapti flow almost parallel to each other.

Narmada

  • Also known as Nerbudda, length is 1,057 km.
  • Forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India.
  • Rises in Amarkantak Hill in Madhya Pradesh and pursues a direct westerly course to the Gulf of Cambay.
  • Empties into the Arabian Sea in the Bharuch district of Gujarat.
  • Main tributaries: Hiran, Burhner, Banjar, Shar, Shakkar, Tawa.

Tapti

  • Known as twin of Narmada, length is 724 km
  • Originates in the eastern Satpura Range in Betul Distt., Madhya Pradesh,ends in the Gulf of Cambay.
  • Main tributaries: Arunavati, Ganjal, Purna, Girna, Panzara, Waghur, Bori and Aner.

Luni

  • Also known as Salt River, length is 450 km.
  • Originates in Aravalli hills, never reaches the sea.

Sabarmati

  • Rises from Aravalli hills, Rajasthan, length is 416 km.

Mahi

  • Originates in the Vindhyas in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Total length is 560 km.

Sharavati

  • Originates in the Sahyadris or Western Ghats.
  • Forms India's highest waterfall Jog or Gersoppa (289 m) which is also known as Mahatama Gandhi Falls.

Godavari

  • Also known as Vriddha Ganga,is 1,465 km long.
  • Longest peninsular river.
  • Rises at Trimbakeshwar, near Nasik in Maharashtra.
  • Flows southeast across south-central India through MP, Karnataka, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Ends in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Major tributaries: Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga, Indravati, Manjira, Bindusara and Sabari.

Krishna

  • Originates in Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra.
  • Meets the sea in the Bay of Bengal in Andhra Pradesh. Total length is 1327 km.
  • Most Important tributary is the Tungabhadra River, which itself is formed by the Tunga and Bhadra rivers.
  • Main tributaries: Koyna, Bhima, Mallaprabha, Ghataprabha, Yerla, Warna, Dindi, Musi, Dudhganga and Panchganga.

Kaveri

  • Also called Dakshin Ganga.
  • Originates in Talakaveri located in the Western Ghats. Total length is about 805 km.
  • Largest peninsular river in terms of amount of water.
  • Flows from Karnataka through Tamil Nadu.
  • Only peninsular river which flows almost throughout the year.
  • Ends in the Bay of Bengal.
  • Main Tributaries: Shimsha, Hemavati, Arkavathy, Kapila, Honnuhole, Lakshmana Tirtha, Kabini, Lokapavani, Bhavani, Noyyal and Amaravati.

Mahanadi

  • The third largest in peninsular India.
  • Begins in the Baster hills of Chhattisgarh.
  • About 858 km long. Enters the Bay of Bengal
  • Main branches meet Bay of Bengal at Paradip and Nuagarh (Devi estuary).
  • Main tributaries: Jonk, Hasdo, Tel, Ib, Mand and Seonath.


Major Indian Rivers

S. No.

 

Name of the River

 

Origin

 

Length (km)

 

1.

 

Indus

 

Mansarovar (Tibet)

 

2880

 

2.

 

Ganga

 

Gangotri (UttaraKhand)

 

2525

 

3.

 

Yamuna

 

Yamunotri (UttaraKhand)

 

1375

 

4.

 

Brahmaputra

 

Chemayungdung Glacier (Tibet)

 

2900

 

5.

 

Sabarmati

 

Aravalli Hills (Rajasthan)

 

416

 

6.

 

Luni

 

Aravalli Hills (Rajasthan)

 

450

 

7.

 

Mahi

 

Dhar (Madhya Pradesh)

 

560

 

8.

 

Narmada

 

Amarkantak (Madhya Pradesh)

 

1057

 

9.

 

Tapi

 

Betul (Madhya Pradesh)

 

724

 

10.

 

Brahmani

 

Ranchi (Jharkhand)

 

705

 

11.

 

Mahanadi

 

Raipur (Chhattisgarh)

 

858

 

12.

 

Godavari

 

Nasik (Maharashtra)

 

1465

 

13.

 

Krishna

 

Mahabaleshwar (Maharashtra)

 

1327

 

14.

 

Pennar

 

Kolar (Karnataka)

 

597

 

15.

 

Cauvery

 

Coorg (Karnataka)

 

805

 

 

 

 

Comments 

 
0 #1 rlkoaj 2011-10-01 04:01
awesome arttcile...very helpfull..do post on agri crops too
Quote
 

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